Advanced Magic with pixiedust

Benjamin Nutter

2017-09-15

In addition to the basic cell-specific customizations covered in the “pixiedust” vignette (vignette("pixiedust")), pixiedust also supports some more advanced features for displaying tabular output. Specifically, you can add multi-row headers and footers; display your tables in multiple divisions; and create cells that span multiple columns and/or rows.

The presentation of this vignette will be a hybrid of tutorial and testing environment. Due to the way that pixiedust generates output, it cannot be directly evaluated for accuracy (this may change some day, but not right now) and so the best way to see if it is doing what is expected is to generate the output. The primary tutorial aspect of this vignette will be covered in the HTML portions, with the Markdown and Console output being provided mostly to verify that the output is as expected.

For parts of this vignette, we will work with the mtcars data frame. But first we make some additions to the data. For simplicity, we will only use the first ten rows of the data frame. Additionally, we will add labels to the variables using the label function from the Hmisc package.

library(dplyr)
## 
## Attaching package: 'dplyr'
## The following objects are masked from 'package:stats':
## 
##     filter, lag
## The following objects are masked from 'package:base':
## 
##     intersect, setdiff, setequal, union
library(pixiedust)
## Additional documentation is being constructed at http://nutterb.github.io/pixiedust/index.html
mtcars2 <- mtcars[1:10, ]

Hmisc::label(mtcars2$mpg) <- "Gas Mileage"
Hmisc::label(mtcars2$cyl) <- "Cylinders"
Hmisc::label(mtcars2$disp) <- "Displacement"
Hmisc::label(mtcars2$hp) <- "Horse Power"
Hmisc::label(mtcars2$drat) <- "Rear Axle Ratio"
Hmisc::label(mtcars2$wt) <- "Weight"
Hmisc::label(mtcars2$qsec) <- "1/4 mile time"
Hmisc::label(mtcars2$vs) <- "V/S"
Hmisc::label(mtcars2$am) <- "Transmission"
Hmisc::label(mtcars2$gear) <- "Forward Gears"
Hmisc::label(mtcars2$carb) <- "Carburetors"

In other portions of the vignette, we will use a linear model based on the full mtcars data set. We will assign the same variable labels shown above. We will also create a couple of factor variables to show how factors can be displayed.

1 HTML Output

1.1 Multirow Headers and Footers

To illustrate the multirow headers and footers, we will generate a header that has both the column name and the label. The footer will summarise the values in each column by mean and standard deviation.

custom_head <- rbind(names(mtcars2), Hmisc::label(mtcars2)) %>%
  as.data.frame(stringsAsFactors = FALSE)

custom_foot <- rbind(vapply(mtcars2, mean, numeric(1)),
                     vapply(mtcars2, sd, numeric(1))) %>%
  as.data.frame(stringsAsFactors = FALSE)

Now we need only create a dust object and add our custom header and footer. To replace components of the dust object, we “redust” the component. We’ll also shade the head and foot in different shades of gray to make them stand out.

dust(mtcars2) %>%
  redust(custom_head, part = "head") %>%
  redust(custom_foot, part = "foot") %>%
  sprinkle_table(round = 2) %>%
  sprinkle(bg = "gray", part = "head") %>%
  sprinkle(bg = "lightgray", part = "foot") %>%
  sprinkle_print_method("html")
## Warning: attributes are not identical across measure variables;
## they will be dropped
mpg cyl disp hp drat wt qsec vs am gear carb
Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
21 6 160 110 3.9 2.62 16.46 0 1 4 4
21 6 160 110 3.9 2.88 17.02 0 1 4 4
22.8 4 108 93 3.85 2.32 18.61 1 1 4 1
21.4 6 258 110 3.08 3.21 19.44 1 0 3 1
18.7 8 360 175 3.15 3.44 17.02 0 0 3 2
18.1 6 225 105 2.76 3.46 20.22 1 0 3 1
14.3 8 360 245 3.21 3.57 15.84 0 0 3 4
24.4 4 146.7 62 3.69 3.19 20 1 0 4 2
22.8 4 140.8 95 3.92 3.15 22.9 1 0 4 2
19.2 6 167.6 123 3.92 3.44 18.3 1 0 4 4
20.37 5.8 208.61 122.8 3.54 3.13 18.58 0.6 0.3 3.6 2.5
2.91 1.48 90.37 51.45 0.44 0.41 2.14 0.52 0.48 0.52 1.35


1.2 Longtable Feature

The longtable feature is named for the LaTeX package longtable, which will automatically break a table into multiple divisions, each of which is displayed on a separate page. We can use the long table sprinkle to break a table into divisions of any size we like. In this example, we’ll use divisions of four rows each. We will use the same header and footer as the previous example, and we’ll also make use of the interfoot, which is the footer placed at the bottom of each intermediate table, while the footer is placed only at the bottom of the last table. We’ll make use of the multi-cell feature for the interfoot here, although we won’t really discuss it until the next section.

The code for this table is nearly identical to the previous example. We just add a redust call for the interfoot and add a longtable argument to sprinkle_table.

custom_interfoot <- data.frame("To Be Continued", 
                               "", "", "", "", "", "",
                               "", "", "", "")

(x <- dust(mtcars2) %>%
  redust(custom_head, part = "head") %>%
  redust(custom_foot, part = "foot") %>%
  redust(custom_interfoot, part = "interfoot") %>%
  sprinkle_table(round = 2, longtable = 4) %>%
  sprinkle(bg = "gray", part = "head") %>%
  sprinkle(bg = "lightgray", part = "foot") %>%
  sprinkle(bg = "lightgray", part = "interfoot") %>%
  sprinkle_print_method("html"))
## Warning: attributes are not identical across measure variables;
## they will be dropped

## Warning: attributes are not identical across measure variables;
## they will be dropped
mpg cyl disp hp drat wt qsec vs am gear carb
Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
21 6 160 110 3.9 2.62 16.46 0 1 4 4
21 6 160 110 3.9 2.88 17.02 0 1 4 4
22.8 4 108 93 3.85 2.32 18.61 1 1 4 1
21.4 6 258 110 3.08 3.21 19.44 1 0 3 1
To Be Continued


mpg cyl disp hp drat wt qsec vs am gear carb
Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
18.7 8 360 175 3.15 3.44 17.02 0 0 3 2
18.1 6 225 105 2.76 3.46 20.22 1 0 3 1
14.3 8 360 245 3.21 3.57 15.84 0 0 3 4
24.4 4 146.7 62 3.69 3.19 20 1 0 4 2
To Be Continued


mpg cyl disp hp drat wt qsec vs am gear carb
Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
22.8 4 140.8 95 3.92 3.15 22.9 1 0 4 2
19.2 6 167.6 123 3.92 3.44 18.3 1 0 4 4
20.37 5.8 208.61 122.8 3.54 3.13 18.58 0.6 0.3 3.6 2.5
2.91 1.48 90.37 51.45 0.44 0.41 2.14 0.52 0.48 0.52 1.35


1.3 Multi-cell Representations

The table above doesn’t look quite right, however, because the “To Be Continued” appears in one cell when it might look better spread out on a single line. We can use the merge sprinkle to merge all of the cells in the interfoot in order to make it appear more fluid.

x %>%
  sprinkle(merge = TRUE, halign = "center", part = "interfoot")
mpg cyl disp hp drat wt qsec vs am gear carb
Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
21 6 160 110 3.9 2.62 16.46 0 1 4 4
21 6 160 110 3.9 2.88 17.02 0 1 4 4
22.8 4 108 93 3.85 2.32 18.61 1 1 4 1
21.4 6 258 110 3.08 3.21 19.44 1 0 3 1
To Be Continued


mpg cyl disp hp drat wt qsec vs am gear carb
Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
18.7 8 360 175 3.15 3.44 17.02 0 0 3 2
18.1 6 225 105 2.76 3.46 20.22 1 0 3 1
14.3 8 360 245 3.21 3.57 15.84 0 0 3 4
24.4 4 146.7 62 3.69 3.19 20 1 0 4 2
To Be Continued


mpg cyl disp hp drat wt qsec vs am gear carb
Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
22.8 4 140.8 95 3.92 3.15 22.9 1 0 4 2
19.2 6 167.6 123 3.92 3.44 18.3 1 0 4 4
20.37 5.8 208.61 122.8 3.54 3.13 18.58 0.6 0.3 3.6 2.5
2.91 1.48 90.37 51.45 0.44 0.41 2.14 0.52 0.48 0.52 1.35


The merge sprinkle may be used to join any number of conjoined cells. The following example is for illustration only, and probably wouldn’t be put to use in any meaningful application. What we will do is merge nine cells and display the value of the center cell. Take notice of where the value 160 appears in the table below compared to the table above.

x %>%
  sprinkle(merge = TRUE, halign = "center", part = "interfoot") %>%
  sprinkle(rows = 1:3, cols = 2:4,
           merge = TRUE, merge_rowval = 2, merge_colval = 3,
           halign = "center")
mpg cyl disp hp drat wt qsec vs am gear carb
Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
21 160 3.9 2.62 16.46 0 1 4 4
21 3.9 2.88 17.02 0 1 4 4
22.8 3.85 2.32 18.61 1 1 4 1
21.4 6 258 110 3.08 3.21 19.44 1 0 3 1
To Be Continued


mpg cyl disp hp drat wt qsec vs am gear carb
Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
18.7 8 360 175 3.15 3.44 17.02 0 0 3 2
18.1 6 225 105 2.76 3.46 20.22 1 0 3 1
14.3 8 360 245 3.21 3.57 15.84 0 0 3 4
24.4 4 146.7 62 3.69 3.19 20 1 0 4 2
To Be Continued


mpg cyl disp hp drat wt qsec vs am gear carb
Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
22.8 4 140.8 95 3.92 3.15 22.9 1 0 4 2
19.2 6 167.6 123 3.92 3.44 18.3 1 0 4 4
20.37 5.8 208.61 122.8 3.54 3.13 18.58 0.6 0.3 3.6 2.5
2.91 1.48 90.37 51.45 0.44 0.41 2.14 0.52 0.48 0.52 1.35


1.4 Model Summaries with Fit Statistics

pixiedust offers a few options to help simplify the preparation of model output for tabular display. If you choose to use the label functions from the Hmisc package, these labels can be accessed for the table. Additionally, the levels of factor variables may be printed in a more human-readable format.

fit <- lm(mpg ~ qsec + factor(am) + wt + factor(gear), 
          data = mtcars)

dust(fit, descriptors = c("label", "level")) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 3:5, round = 2) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 6, fn = quote(pvalString(value))) %>%
  sprinkle_print_method("html")
label level estimate std.error statistic p.value
(Intercept) NA 9.37 8.37 1.12 0.27
1/4 mile time 1.24 0.38 3.25 0.003
factor(am) Manual 3.15 1.94 1.62 0.12
Weight -3.93 0.74 -5.29 < 0.001
factor(gear) 4 -0.27 1.66 -0.16 0.87
factor(gear) 5 -0.27 2.06 -0.13 0.9


Or, if we wish to see the reference value of the factors, we can request the "level_detail" descriptor.

dust(fit, descriptors = c("label", "level_detail")) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 3:5, round = 2) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 6, fn = quote(pvalString(value))) %>%
  sprinkle_print_method("html")
label level_detail estimate std.error statistic p.value
(Intercept) NA 9.37 8.37 1.12 0.27
1/4 mile time 1.24 0.38 3.25 0.003
factor(am) Manual vs. Automatic 3.15 1.94 1.62 0.12
Weight -3.93 0.74 -5.29 < 0.001
factor(gear) 4 vs. 3 -0.27 1.66 -0.16 0.87
factor(gear) 5 vs. 3 -0.27 2.06 -0.13 0.9


One word of caution: The labels are pulled from the data obtained by model.frame, and if you apply a function to a term in your formula, you might lose the label. Consider the example below, where we include the vs variable, but convert it from a numeric to a factor. If retaining the label is important to you, making your conversions prior to assigning the labels will be a good habit. Don’t fret too much, however, as you can always replace a cell’s content with the replace sprinkle.

fit <- lm(mpg ~ qsec + am + wt + gear + factor(vs), 
          data = mtcars)

dust(fit, descriptors = c("label", "level_detail")) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 3:5, round = 2) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 6, fn = quote(pvalString(value))) %>%
  sprinkle_print_method("html")
label level_detail estimate std.error statistic p.value
(Intercept) NA 9.55 9.45 1.01 0.32
1/4 mile time 1.23 0.51 2.39 0.025
Transmission Manual vs. Automatic 3.17 2.01 1.58 0.13
Weight -3.91 0.85 -4.62 < 0.001
Forward Gears 4 vs. 3 -0.29 1.77 -0.17 0.87
Forward Gears 5 vs. 3 -0.29 2.17 -0.14 0.89
factor(vs) 1 vs. 0 0.09 1.92 0.05 0.96


In addition to providing better labeling of terms and factor levels, pixiedust allows you to add model fit statistics in a similar manner that the stargazer package does. Under the default settings, we can build these statistics in the following manner:

fit <- lm(mpg ~ qsec + am + wt + gear, 
          data = mtcars)

dust(fit, descriptors = c("label", "level_detail"),
     glance_foot = TRUE) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 3:5, round = 2) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 6, fn = quote(pvalString(value))) %>%
  sprinkle(rows = 1, border = "top") %>%
  sprinkle(cols = c(2, 6), round = 2, na_string = "",
           part = "foot") %>%
  sprinkle(rows = 1, border = "top", part = "foot") %>%
  sprinkle_print_method("html")
label level_detail estimate std.error statistic p.value
(Intercept) NA 9.37 8.37 1.12 0.27
1/4 mile time 1.24 0.38 3.25 0.003
Transmission Manual vs. Automatic 3.15 1.94 1.62 0.12
Weight -3.93 0.74 -5.29 < 0.001
Forward Gears 4 vs. 3 -0.27 1.66 -0.16 0.87
Forward Gears 5 vs. 3 -0.27 2.06 -0.13 0.9
r.squared 0.85 logLik -72.04
adj.r.squared 0.82 AIC 158.08
sigma 2.55 BIC 168.34
statistic 29.43 deviance 169.1
p.value 0 df.residual 26
df 6


At times, we may find the volume of these fit statistics overwhelming and may want to display only a subset of them. This can be done with the use of the glance_stats argument in dust. In addition to selecting the statistics to display, the order in which they are displayed may also be controlled.

fit <- lm(mpg ~ qsec + am + wt + gear, 
          data = mtcars)

dust(fit, descriptors = c("label", "level_detail"),
     glance_foot = TRUE,
     glance_stats = c("AIC", "adj.r.squared", "BIC", "df"),
     byrow = TRUE) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 3:5, round = 2) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 6, fn = quote(pvalString(value))) %>%
  sprinkle(rows = 1, border = "top") %>%
  sprinkle(cols = c(2, 6), round = 2, na_string = "",
           part = "foot") %>%
  sprinkle(rows = 1, border = "top", part = "foot") %>%
  sprinkle_print_method("html")
label level_detail estimate std.error statistic p.value
(Intercept) NA 9.37 8.37 1.12 0.27
1/4 mile time 1.24 0.38 3.25 0.003
Transmission Manual vs. Automatic 3.15 1.94 1.62 0.12
Weight -3.93 0.74 -5.29 < 0.001
Forward Gears 4 vs. 3 -0.27 1.66 -0.16 0.87
Forward Gears 5 vs. 3 -0.27 2.06 -0.13 0.9
AIC 158.08 adj.r.squared 0.82
BIC 168.34 df 6


2 Console Output

The console output isn’t as sophisticated as the HTML output, and so not all of the sprinkles applied to the HTML table will show up in the console. Background shading in particular doesn’t appear in the console. Multirow headers and footers still work, however.

2.1 Multirow Headers and Footers

To illustrate the multirow headers and footers, we will generate a header that has both the column name and the label. The footer will summarise the values in each column by mean and standard deviation.

custom_head <- rbind(names(mtcars2), Hmisc::label(mtcars2)) %>%
  as.data.frame(stringsAsFactors = FALSE)

custom_foot <- rbind(vapply(mtcars2, mean, numeric(1)),
                     vapply(mtcars2, sd, numeric(1))) %>%
  as.data.frame(stringsAsFactors = FALSE)

Now we need only create a dust object and add our custom header and footer. To replace components of the dust object, we “redust” the component. We’ll also shade the head and foot in different shades of gray to make them stand out.

dust(mtcars2) %>%
  redust(custom_head, part = "head") %>%
  redust(custom_foot, part = "foot") %>%
  sprinkle_table(round = 2) %>%
  sprinkle(bg = "gray", part = "head") %>%
  sprinkle(bg = "lightgray", part = "foot") %>%
  sprinkle_print_method("console")
## Warning: attributes are not identical across measure variables;
## they will be dropped
##            mpg       cyl         disp          hp            drat     wt
## 1  Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio Weight
## 2           21         6          160         110             3.9   2.62
## 3           21         6          160         110             3.9   2.88
## 4         22.8         4          108          93            3.85   2.32
## 5         21.4         6          258         110            3.08   3.21
## 6         18.7         8          360         175            3.15   3.44
## 7         18.1         6          225         105            2.76   3.46
## 8         14.3         8          360         245            3.21   3.57
## 9         24.4         4        146.7          62            3.69   3.19
## 10        22.8         4        140.8          95            3.92   3.15
## 11        19.2         6        167.6         123            3.92   3.44
## 12       20.37       5.8       208.61       122.8            3.54   3.13
## 13        2.91      1.48        90.37       51.45            0.44   0.41
##             qsec   vs           am          gear        carb
## 1  1/4 mile time  V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
## 2          16.46    0            1             4           4
## 3          17.02    0            1             4           4
## 4          18.61    1            1             4           1
## 5          19.44    1            0             3           1
## 6          17.02    0            0             3           2
## 7          20.22    1            0             3           1
## 8          15.84    0            0             3           4
## 9             20    1            0             4           2
## 10          22.9    1            0             4           2
## 11          18.3    1            0             4           4
## 12         18.58  0.6          0.3           3.6         2.5
## 13          2.14 0.52         0.48          0.52        1.35

2.2 Longtable Feature

The longtable feature is named for the LaTeX package longtable, which will automatically break a table into multiple divisions, each of which is displayed on a separate page. We can use the long table sprinkle to break a table into divisions of any size we like. In this example, we’ll use divisions of four rows each. We will use the same header and footer as the previous example, and we’ll also make use of the interfoot, which is the footer placed at the bottom of each intermediate table, while the footer is placed only at the bottom of the last table. We’ll make use of the multi-cell feature for the interfoot here, although we won’t really discuss it until the next section.

The code for this table is nearly identical to the previous example. We just add a redust call for the interfoot and add a longtable argument to sprinkle_table.

custom_interfoot <- data.frame("To Be Continued", 
                               "", "", "", "", "", "",
                               "", "", "", "")

(x <- dust(mtcars2) %>%
  redust(custom_head, part = "head") %>%
  redust(custom_foot, part = "foot") %>%
  redust(custom_interfoot, part = "interfoot") %>%
  sprinkle_table(round = 2, longtable = 4) %>%
  sprinkle(bg = "gray", part = "head") %>%
  sprinkle(bg = "lightgray", part = "foot") %>%
  sprinkle(bg = "lightgray", part = "interfoot") %>%
  sprinkle_print_method("console"))
## Warning: attributes are not identical across measure variables;
## they will be dropped

## Warning: attributes are not identical across measure variables;
## they will be dropped
##               mpg       cyl         disp          hp            drat
## 1     Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio
## 2              21         6          160         110             3.9
## 3              21         6          160         110             3.9
## 4            22.8         4          108          93            3.85
## 5            21.4         6          258         110            3.08
## 6 To Be Continued                                                   
##       wt          qsec  vs           am          gear        carb
## 1 Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
## 2   2.62         16.46   0            1             4           4
## 3   2.88         17.02   0            1             4           4
## 4   2.32         18.61   1            1             4           1
## 5   3.21         19.44   1            0             3           1
## 6                                                                
## 
## 
##               mpg       cyl         disp          hp            drat
## 1     Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio
## 2            18.7         8          360         175            3.15
## 3            18.1         6          225         105            2.76
## 4            14.3         8          360         245            3.21
## 5            24.4         4        146.7          62            3.69
## 6 To Be Continued                                                   
##       wt          qsec  vs           am          gear        carb
## 1 Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
## 2   3.44         17.02   0            0             3           2
## 3   3.46         20.22   1            0             3           1
## 4   3.57         15.84   0            0             3           4
## 5   3.19            20   1            0             4           2
## 6                                                                
## 
## 
##           mpg       cyl         disp          hp            drat     wt
## 1 Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio Weight
## 2        22.8         4        140.8          95            3.92   3.15
## 3        19.2         6        167.6         123            3.92   3.44
## 4       20.37       5.8       208.61       122.8            3.54   3.13
## 5        2.91      1.48        90.37       51.45            0.44   0.41
##            qsec   vs           am          gear        carb
## 1 1/4 mile time  V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
## 2          22.9    1            0             4           2
## 3          18.3    1            0             4           4
## 4         18.58  0.6          0.3           3.6         2.5
## 5          2.14 0.52         0.48          0.52        1.35

2.3 Multi-cell Representations

The table above doesn’t look quite right, however, because the “To Be Continued” appears in one cell when it might look better spread out on a single line. With the HTML output, we could use the merge sprinkle to merge all of the cells in the interfoot in order to make it appear more fluid. However, this feature isn’t supported by the console, so the best we can get is the text in one cell.

x %>%
  sprinkle(merge = TRUE, halign = "center", part = "interfoot")
##               mpg       cyl         disp          hp            drat
## 1     Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio
## 2              21         6          160         110             3.9
## 3              21         6          160         110             3.9
## 4            22.8         4          108          93            3.85
## 5            21.4         6          258         110            3.08
## 6 To Be Continued                                                   
##       wt          qsec  vs           am          gear        carb
## 1 Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
## 2   2.62         16.46   0            1             4           4
## 3   2.88         17.02   0            1             4           4
## 4   2.32         18.61   1            1             4           1
## 5   3.21         19.44   1            0             3           1
## 6                                                                
## 
## 
##               mpg       cyl         disp          hp            drat
## 1     Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio
## 2            18.7         8          360         175            3.15
## 3            18.1         6          225         105            2.76
## 4            14.3         8          360         245            3.21
## 5            24.4         4        146.7          62            3.69
## 6 To Be Continued                                                   
##       wt          qsec  vs           am          gear        carb
## 1 Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
## 2   3.44         17.02   0            0             3           2
## 3   3.46         20.22   1            0             3           1
## 4   3.57         15.84   0            0             3           4
## 5   3.19            20   1            0             4           2
## 6                                                                
## 
## 
##           mpg       cyl         disp          hp            drat     wt
## 1 Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio Weight
## 2        22.8         4        140.8          95            3.92   3.15
## 3        19.2         6        167.6         123            3.92   3.44
## 4       20.37       5.8       208.61       122.8            3.54   3.13
## 5        2.91      1.48        90.37       51.45            0.44   0.41
##            qsec   vs           am          gear        carb
## 1 1/4 mile time  V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
## 2          22.9    1            0             4           2
## 3          18.3    1            0             4           4
## 4         18.58  0.6          0.3           3.6         2.5
## 5          2.14 0.52         0.48          0.52        1.35

The merge sprinkle may be used to join any number of conjoined cells. The following example is for illustration only, and probably wouldn’t be put to use in any meaningful application. What we will do is merge nine cells and display the value of the center cell. Take notice of where the value 160 appears in the table below compared to the table above. In the case of markdown output, the cells aren’t actually merged, but the values of the non-displayed cells are set to "".

x %>%
  sprinkle(merge = TRUE, halign = "center", part = "interfoot") %>%
  sprinkle(rows = 1:3, cols = 2:4,
           merge = TRUE, merge_rowval = 2, merge_colval = 3,
           halign = "center")
##               mpg       cyl         disp          hp            drat
## 1     Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio
## 2              21                                                3.9
## 3              21                    160                         3.9
## 4            22.8                                               3.85
## 5            21.4         6          258         110            3.08
## 6 To Be Continued                                                   
##       wt          qsec  vs           am          gear        carb
## 1 Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
## 2   2.62         16.46   0            1             4           4
## 3   2.88         17.02   0            1             4           4
## 4   2.32         18.61   1            1             4           1
## 5   3.21         19.44   1            0             3           1
## 6                                                                
## 
## 
##               mpg       cyl         disp          hp            drat
## 1     Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio
## 2            18.7         8          360         175            3.15
## 3            18.1         6          225         105            2.76
## 4            14.3         8          360         245            3.21
## 5            24.4         4        146.7          62            3.69
## 6 To Be Continued                                                   
##       wt          qsec  vs           am          gear        carb
## 1 Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
## 2   3.44         17.02   0            0             3           2
## 3   3.46         20.22   1            0             3           1
## 4   3.57         15.84   0            0             3           4
## 5   3.19            20   1            0             4           2
## 6                                                                
## 
## 
##           mpg       cyl         disp          hp            drat     wt
## 1 Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio Weight
## 2        22.8         4        140.8          95            3.92   3.15
## 3        19.2         6        167.6         123            3.92   3.44
## 4       20.37       5.8       208.61       122.8            3.54   3.13
## 5        2.91      1.48        90.37       51.45            0.44   0.41
##            qsec   vs           am          gear        carb
## 1 1/4 mile time  V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
## 2          22.9    1            0             4           2
## 3          18.3    1            0             4           4
## 4         18.58  0.6          0.3           3.6         2.5
## 5          2.14 0.52         0.48          0.52        1.35

2.4 Model Summaries with Fit Statistics

pixiedust offers a few options to help simplify the preparation of model output for tabular display. If you choose to use the label functions from the Hmisc package, these labels can be accessed for the table. Additionally, the levels of factor variables may be printed in a more human-readable format.

fit <- lm(mpg ~ qsec + factor(am) + wt + factor(gear), 
          data = mtcars)

dust(fit, descriptors = c("label", "level")) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 3:5, round = 2) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 6, fn = quote(pvalString(value))) %>%
  sprinkle_print_method("console")
##           label  level estimate std.error statistic p.value
## 1   (Intercept)   <NA>     9.37      8.37      1.12    0.27
## 2 1/4 mile time            1.24      0.38      3.25   0.003
## 3    factor(am) Manual     3.15      1.94      1.62    0.12
## 4        Weight           -3.93      0.74     -5.29 < 0.001
## 5  factor(gear)      4    -0.27      1.66     -0.16    0.87
## 6  factor(gear)      5    -0.27      2.06     -0.13     0.9

Or, if we wish to see the reference value of the factors, we can request the "level_detail" descriptor.

dust(fit, descriptors = c("label", "level_detail")) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 3:5, round = 2) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 6, fn = quote(pvalString(value))) %>%
  sprinkle_print_method("console")
##           label         level_detail estimate std.error statistic p.value
## 1   (Intercept)                 <NA>     9.37      8.37      1.12    0.27
## 2 1/4 mile time                          1.24      0.38      3.25   0.003
## 3    factor(am) Manual vs. Automatic     3.15      1.94      1.62    0.12
## 4        Weight                         -3.93      0.74     -5.29 < 0.001
## 5  factor(gear)              4 vs. 3    -0.27      1.66     -0.16    0.87
## 6  factor(gear)              5 vs. 3    -0.27      2.06     -0.13     0.9

One word of caution: The labels are pulled from the data obtained by model.frame, and if you apply a function to a term in your formula, you might lose the label. Consider the example below, where we include the vs variable, but convert it from a numeric to a factor. If retaining the label is important to you, making your conversions prior to assigning the labels will be a good habit. Don’t fret too much, however, as you can always replace a cell’s content with the replace sprinkle.

fit <- lm(mpg ~ qsec + am + wt + gear + factor(vs), 
          data = mtcars)

dust(fit, descriptors = c("label", "level_detail")) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 3:5, round = 2) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 6, fn = quote(pvalString(value))) %>%
  sprinkle_print_method("console")
##           label         level_detail estimate std.error statistic p.value
## 1   (Intercept)                 <NA>     9.55      9.45      1.01    0.32
## 2 1/4 mile time                          1.23      0.51      2.39   0.025
## 3  Transmission Manual vs. Automatic     3.17      2.01      1.58    0.13
## 4        Weight                         -3.91      0.85     -4.62 < 0.001
## 5 Forward Gears              4 vs. 3    -0.29      1.77     -0.17    0.87
## 6 Forward Gears              5 vs. 3    -0.29      2.17     -0.14    0.89
## 7    factor(vs)              1 vs. 0     0.09      1.92      0.05    0.96

In addition to providing better labeling of terms and factor levels, pixiedust allows you to add model fit statistics in a similar manner that the stargazer package does. Under the default settings, we can build these statistics in the following manner:

fit <- lm(mpg ~ qsec + am + wt + gear, 
          data = mtcars)

dust(fit, descriptors = c("label", "level_detail"),
     glance_foot = TRUE) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 3:5, round = 2) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 6, fn = quote(pvalString(value))) %>%
  sprinkle(rows = 1, border = "top") %>%
  sprinkle(cols = c(2, 6), round = 2, na_string = "",
           part = "foot") %>%
  sprinkle(rows = 1, border = "top", part = "foot") %>%
  sprinkle_print_method("console")
##            label         level_detail estimate std.error   statistic
## 1    (Intercept)                 <NA>     9.37      8.37        1.12
## 2  1/4 mile time                          1.24      0.38        3.25
## 3   Transmission Manual vs. Automatic     3.15      1.94        1.62
## 4         Weight                         -3.93      0.74       -5.29
## 5  Forward Gears              4 vs. 3    -0.27      1.66       -0.16
## 6  Forward Gears              5 vs. 3    -0.27      2.06       -0.13
## 7      r.squared                 0.85                         logLik
## 8  adj.r.squared                 0.82                            AIC
## 9          sigma                 2.55                            BIC
## 10     statistic                29.43                       deviance
## 11       p.value                    0                    df.residual
## 12            df                    6                               
##    p.value
## 1     0.27
## 2    0.003
## 3     0.12
## 4  < 0.001
## 5     0.87
## 6      0.9
## 7   -72.04
## 8   158.08
## 9   168.34
## 10   169.1
## 11      26
## 12

At times, we may find the volume of these fit statistics overwhelming and may want to display only a subset of them. This can be done with the use of the glance_stats argument in dust. In addition to selecting the statistics to display, the order in which they are displayed may also be controlled.

fit <- lm(mpg ~ qsec + am + wt + gear, 
          data = mtcars)

dust(fit, descriptors = c("label", "level_detail"),
     glance_foot = TRUE,
     glance_stats = c("AIC", "adj.r.squared", "BIC", "df"),
     byrow = TRUE) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 3:5, round = 2) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 6, fn = quote(pvalString(value))) %>%
  sprinkle(rows = 1, border = "top") %>%
  sprinkle(cols = c(2, 6), round = 2, na_string = "",
           part = "foot") %>%
  sprinkle(rows = 1, border = "top", part = "foot") %>%
  sprinkle_print_method("console")
##           label         level_detail estimate std.error     statistic
## 1   (Intercept)                 <NA>     9.37      8.37          1.12
## 2 1/4 mile time                          1.24      0.38          3.25
## 3  Transmission Manual vs. Automatic     3.15      1.94          1.62
## 4        Weight                         -3.93      0.74         -5.29
## 5 Forward Gears              4 vs. 3    -0.27      1.66         -0.16
## 6 Forward Gears              5 vs. 3    -0.27      2.06         -0.13
## 7           AIC               158.08                    adj.r.squared
## 8           BIC               168.34                               df
##   p.value
## 1    0.27
## 2   0.003
## 3    0.12
## 4 < 0.001
## 5    0.87
## 6     0.9
## 7    0.82
## 8       6

3 Markdown Output

Markdown output will support some of the features of pixiedust a little better, but they are still pretty limited. Background colors are not supported. Headers will appear in bold text. To distinguish the footers, we’ll print them in italics.

3.1 Multirow Headers and Footers

To illustrate the multirow headers and footers, we will generate a header that has both the column name and the label. The footer will summarise the values in each column by mean and standard deviation.

custom_head <- rbind(names(mtcars2), Hmisc::label(mtcars2)) %>%
  as.data.frame(stringsAsFactors = FALSE)

custom_foot <- rbind(vapply(mtcars2, mean, numeric(1)),
                     vapply(mtcars2, sd, numeric(1))) %>%
  as.data.frame(stringsAsFactors = FALSE)

Now we need only create a dust object and add our custom header and footer. To replace components of the dust object, we “redust” the component. We’ll also shade the head and foot in different shades of gray to make them stand out.

dust(mtcars2) %>%
  redust(custom_head, part = "head") %>%
  redust(custom_foot, part = "foot") %>%
  sprinkle_table(round = 2) %>%
  sprinkle(bg = "gray", part = "head") %>%
  sprinkle(bg = "lightgray", part = "foot") %>%
  sprinkle_print_method("markdown")
## Warning: attributes are not identical across measure variables;
## they will be dropped
mpg cyl disp hp drat wt qsec vs am gear carb
Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
21 6 160 110 3.9 2.62 16.46 0 1 4 4
21 6 160 110 3.9 2.88 17.02 0 1 4 4
22.8 4 108 93 3.85 2.32 18.61 1 1 4 1
21.4 6 258 110 3.08 3.21 19.44 1 0 3 1
18.7 8 360 175 3.15 3.44 17.02 0 0 3 2
18.1 6 225 105 2.76 3.46 20.22 1 0 3 1
14.3 8 360 245 3.21 3.57 15.84 0 0 3 4
24.4 4 146.7 62 3.69 3.19 20 1 0 4 2
22.8 4 140.8 95 3.92 3.15 22.9 1 0 4 2
19.2 6 167.6 123 3.92 3.44 18.3 1 0 4 4
20.37 5.8 208.61 122.8 3.54 3.13 18.58 0.6 0.3 3.6 2.5
2.91 1.48 90.37 51.45 0.44 0.41 2.14 0.52 0.48 0.52 1.35



3.2 Longtable Feature

The longtable feature is named for the LaTeX package longtable, which will automatically break a table into multiple divisions, each of which is displayed on a separate page. We can use the long table sprinkle to break a table into divisions of any size we like. In this example, we’ll use divisions of four rows each. We will use the same header and footer as the previous example, and we’ll also make use of the interfoot, which is the footer placed at the bottom of each intermediate table, while the footer is placed only at the bottom of the last table. We’ll make use of the multi-cell feature for the interfoot here, although we won’t really discuss it until the next section.

The code for this table is nearly identical to the previous example. We just add a redust call for the interfoot and add a longtable argument to sprinkle_table.

custom_interfoot <- data.frame("To Be Continued", 
                               "", "", "", "", "", "",
                               "", "", "", "")

(x <- dust(mtcars2) %>%
  redust(custom_head, part = "head") %>%
  redust(custom_foot, part = "foot") %>%
  redust(custom_interfoot, part = "interfoot") %>%
  sprinkle_table(round = 2, longtable = 4) %>%
  sprinkle(bg = "gray", part = "head") %>%
  sprinkle(bg = "lightgray", part = "foot") %>%
  sprinkle(bg = "lightgray", part = "interfoot") %>%
  sprinkle_print_method("markdown"))
## Warning: attributes are not identical across measure variables;
## they will be dropped

## Warning: attributes are not identical across measure variables;
## they will be dropped
mpg cyl disp hp drat wt qsec vs am gear carb
Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
21 6 160 110 3.9 2.62 16.46 0 1 4 4
21 6 160 110 3.9 2.88 17.02 0 1 4 4
22.8 4 108 93 3.85 2.32 18.61 1 1 4 1
21.4 6 258 110 3.08 3.21 19.44 1 0 3 1
To Be Continued



mpg cyl disp hp drat wt qsec vs am gear carb
Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
18.7 8 360 175 3.15 3.44 17.02 0 0 3 2
18.1 6 225 105 2.76 3.46 20.22 1 0 3 1
14.3 8 360 245 3.21 3.57 15.84 0 0 3 4
24.4 4 146.7 62 3.69 3.19 20 1 0 4 2
To Be Continued



mpg cyl disp hp drat wt qsec vs am gear carb
Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
22.8 4 140.8 95 3.92 3.15 22.9 1 0 4 2
19.2 6 167.6 123 3.92 3.44 18.3 1 0 4 4
20.37 5.8 208.61 122.8 3.54 3.13 18.58 0.6 0.3 3.6 2.5
2.91 1.48 90.37 51.45 0.44 0.41 2.14 0.52 0.48 0.52 1.35



3.3 Multi-cell Representations

The table above doesn’t look quite right, however, because the “To Be Continued” appears in one cell when it might look better spread out on a single line. With the HTML output, we could use the merge sprinkle to merge all of the cells in the interfoot in order to make it appear more fluid. However, this feature isn’t supported by markdown, so the best we can get is the text in one cell.

x %>%
  sprinkle(merge = TRUE, halign = "center", part = "interfoot")
mpg cyl disp hp drat wt qsec vs am gear carb
Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
21 6 160 110 3.9 2.62 16.46 0 1 4 4
21 6 160 110 3.9 2.88 17.02 0 1 4 4
22.8 4 108 93 3.85 2.32 18.61 1 1 4 1
21.4 6 258 110 3.08 3.21 19.44 1 0 3 1
To Be Continued



mpg cyl disp hp drat wt qsec vs am gear carb
Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
18.7 8 360 175 3.15 3.44 17.02 0 0 3 2
18.1 6 225 105 2.76 3.46 20.22 1 0 3 1
14.3 8 360 245 3.21 3.57 15.84 0 0 3 4
24.4 4 146.7 62 3.69 3.19 20 1 0 4 2
To Be Continued



mpg cyl disp hp drat wt qsec vs am gear carb
Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
22.8 4 140.8 95 3.92 3.15 22.9 1 0 4 2
19.2 6 167.6 123 3.92 3.44 18.3 1 0 4 4
20.37 5.8 208.61 122.8 3.54 3.13 18.58 0.6 0.3 3.6 2.5
2.91 1.48 90.37 51.45 0.44 0.41 2.14 0.52 0.48 0.52 1.35



The merge sprinkle may be used to join any number of conjoined cells. The following example is for illustration only, and probably wouldn’t be put to use in any meaningful application. What we will do is merge nine cells and display the value of the center cell. Take notice of where the value 160 appears in the table below compared to the table above. In the case of markdown output, the cells aren’t actually merged, but the values of the non-displayed cells are set to "".

x %>%
  sprinkle(merge = TRUE, halign = "center", part = "interfoot") %>%
  sprinkle(rows = 1:3, cols = 2:4,
           merge = TRUE, merge_rowval = 2, merge_colval = 3,
           halign = "center")
mpg cyl disp hp drat wt qsec vs am gear carb
Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
21 3.9 2.62 16.46 0 1 4 4
21 160 3.9 2.88 17.02 0 1 4 4
22.8 3.85 2.32 18.61 1 1 4 1
21.4 6 258 110 3.08 3.21 19.44 1 0 3 1
To Be Continued



mpg cyl disp hp drat wt qsec vs am gear carb
Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
18.7 8 360 175 3.15 3.44 17.02 0 0 3 2
18.1 6 225 105 2.76 3.46 20.22 1 0 3 1
14.3 8 360 245 3.21 3.57 15.84 0 0 3 4
24.4 4 146.7 62 3.69 3.19 20 1 0 4 2
To Be Continued



mpg cyl disp hp drat wt qsec vs am gear carb
Gas Mileage Cylinders Displacement Horse Power Rear Axle Ratio Weight 1/4 mile time V/S Transmission Forward Gears Carburetors
22.8 4 140.8 95 3.92 3.15 22.9 1 0 4 2
19.2 6 167.6 123 3.92 3.44 18.3 1 0 4 4
20.37 5.8 208.61 122.8 3.54 3.13 18.58 0.6 0.3 3.6 2.5
2.91 1.48 90.37 51.45 0.44 0.41 2.14 0.52 0.48 0.52 1.35



3.4 Model Summaries with Fit Statistics

pixiedust offers a few options to help simplify the preparation of model output for tabular display. If you choose to use the label functions from the Hmisc package, these labels can be accessed for the table. Additionally, the levels of factor variables may be printed in a more human-readable format.

fit <- lm(mpg ~ qsec + factor(am) + wt + factor(gear), 
          data = mtcars)

dust(fit, descriptors = c("label", "level")) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 3:5, round = 2) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 6, fn = quote(pvalString(value))) %>%
  sprinkle_print_method("markdown")
label level estimate std.error statistic p.value
(Intercept) NA 9.37 8.37 1.12 0.27
1/4 mile time 1.24 0.38 3.25 0.003
factor(am) Manual 3.15 1.94 1.62 0.12
Weight -3.93 0.74 -5.29 < 0.001
factor(gear) 4 -0.27 1.66 -0.16 0.87
factor(gear) 5 -0.27 2.06 -0.13 0.9



Or, if we wish to see the reference value of the factors, we can request the "level_detail" descriptor.

dust(fit, descriptors = c("label", "level_detail")) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 3:5, round = 2) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 6, fn = quote(pvalString(value))) %>%
  sprinkle_print_method("markdown")
label level_detail estimate std.error statistic p.value
(Intercept) NA 9.37 8.37 1.12 0.27
1/4 mile time 1.24 0.38 3.25 0.003
factor(am) Manual vs. Automatic 3.15 1.94 1.62 0.12
Weight -3.93 0.74 -5.29 < 0.001
factor(gear) 4 vs. 3 -0.27 1.66 -0.16 0.87
factor(gear) 5 vs. 3 -0.27 2.06 -0.13 0.9



One word of caution: The labels are pulled from the data obtained by model.frame, and if you apply a function to a term in your formula, you might lose the label. Consider the example below, where we include the vs variable, but convert it from a numeric to a factor. If retaining the label is important to you, making your conversions prior to assigning the labels will be a good habit. Don’t fret too much, however, as you can always replace a cell’s content with the replace sprinkle.

fit <- lm(mpg ~ qsec + am + wt + gear + factor(vs), 
          data = mtcars)

dust(fit, descriptors = c("label", "level_detail")) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 3:5, round = 2) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 6, fn = quote(pvalString(value))) %>%
  sprinkle_print_method("markdown")
label level_detail estimate std.error statistic p.value
(Intercept) NA 9.55 9.45 1.01 0.32
1/4 mile time 1.23 0.51 2.39 0.025
Transmission Manual vs. Automatic 3.17 2.01 1.58 0.13
Weight -3.91 0.85 -4.62 < 0.001
Forward Gears 4 vs. 3 -0.29 1.77 -0.17 0.87
Forward Gears 5 vs. 3 -0.29 2.17 -0.14 0.89
factor(vs) 1 vs. 0 0.09 1.92 0.05 0.96



In addition to providing better labeling of terms and factor levels, pixiedust allows you to add model fit statistics in a similar manner that the stargazer package does. Under the default settings, we can build these statistics in the following manner:

fit <- lm(mpg ~ qsec + am + wt + gear, 
          data = mtcars)

dust(fit, descriptors = c("label", "level_detail"),
     glance_foot = TRUE) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 3:5, round = 2) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 6, fn = quote(pvalString(value))) %>%
  sprinkle(rows = 1, border = "top") %>%
  sprinkle(cols = c(2, 6), round = 2, na_string = "",
           part = "foot") %>%
  sprinkle(rows = 1, border = "top", part = "foot") %>%
  sprinkle_print_method("markdown")
label level_detail estimate std.error statistic p.value
(Intercept) NA 9.37 8.37 1.12 0.27
1/4 mile time 1.24 0.38 3.25 0.003
Transmission Manual vs. Automatic 3.15 1.94 1.62 0.12
Weight -3.93 0.74 -5.29 < 0.001
Forward Gears 4 vs. 3 -0.27 1.66 -0.16 0.87
Forward Gears 5 vs. 3 -0.27 2.06 -0.13 0.9
r.squared 0.85 logLik -72.04
adj.r.squared 0.82 AIC 158.08
sigma 2.55 BIC 168.34
statistic 29.43 deviance 169.1
p.value 0 df.residual 26
df 6



At times, we may find the volume of these fit statistics overwhelming and may want to display only a subset of them. This can be done with the use of the glance_stats argument in dust. In addition to selecting the statistics to display, the order in which they are displayed may also be controlled.

fit <- lm(mpg ~ qsec + am + wt + gear, 
          data = mtcars)

dust(fit, descriptors = c("label", "level_detail"),
     glance_foot = TRUE,
     glance_stats = c("AIC", "adj.r.squared", "BIC", "df"),
     byrow = TRUE) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 3:5, round = 2) %>%
  sprinkle(cols = 6, fn = quote(pvalString(value))) %>%
  sprinkle(rows = 1, border = "top") %>%
  sprinkle(cols = c(2, 6), round = 2, na_string = "",
           part = "foot") %>%
  sprinkle(rows = 1, border = "top", part = "foot") %>%
  sprinkle_print_method("markdown")
label level_detail estimate std.error statistic p.value
(Intercept) NA 9.37 8.37 1.12 0.27
1/4 mile time 1.24 0.38 3.25 0.003
Transmission Manual vs. Automatic 3.15 1.94 1.62 0.12
Weight -3.93 0.74 -5.29 < 0.001
Forward Gears 4 vs. 3 -0.27 1.66 -0.16 0.87
Forward Gears 5 vs. 3 -0.27 2.06 -0.13 0.9
AIC 158.08 adj.r.squared 0.82
BIC 168.34 df 6